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Java 11 HTTP Client API

One of the more noteworthy features of the new Java 11 release is the new HttpClient API within the standard library, which has been in incubator status since JDK 9. Previously, the process of sending and retrieving data over HTTP has been very cumbersome in Java. Either you went through the hassle of using HttpURLConnection, or you bring in a library to abstract over it such as the HttpClient from Apache. Notably, both solutions would also block threads whilst doing so.

As these days dealing with HTTP connections is so common, JDK 11 finally has a modern API which can deal with these scenarios - including support for HTTP 2 (server push etc) and WebSockets.

Create a Client

The first step to make use of the new API is to create an instance of the HttpClient class. The library itself makes heavy use of the builder pattern to specify configuration options, as is the case in most new Java libraries.

You can configure things like HTTP version support (the default is set to HTTP 2), whether or not to follow redirects, authentication and a proxy for all requests that pass through the client.

HttpClient client = HttpClient.newBuilder()

The HttpClient instance is the main entry point to send and receive requests (both synchronously or asynchronously). Once created you can reuse them, but they are also immutable.

Create Requests

An HTTP request is represented by instances of HttpRequest which holds the URL, request method, headers, timeout and payload (if applicable). By default GET is used if no other is specified.

HttpRequest request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
               .build(); // GET request

The following snippet creates a POST request with a custom timeout. A BodyPublisher must be used to attach a payload to a request - in this case taking a JSON String and converting it into bytes.

HttpRequest request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
      .header("Content-Type", "application/json")

Send Requests

Once an HttpRequest is created, you can send it via the HttpClient previously constructed. Both synchronous and asynchronous operations are supported:


The HttpClient.send method will perform the HTTP request synchronously - meaning that the current thread will be blocked until a response is obtained. The HttpResponse class encapsulates the response itself including status code, body and headers.

HttpResponse<String> response = client.send(request, BodyHandlers.ofString());

When receiving responses, a BodyHandler is provided to instruct the client on how to process the response body. The BodyHandlers class includes default handlers for the most common scenarios. ofString will return the body as an UTF-8 encoded String, ofFile accepts a Path to write the response to a file and ofByteArray will give you the raw bytes.


One of the best features of the API is the ability to perform completely asynchronous requests - meaning that no thread is blocked during the process. Under the hoods, the implementation uses NIO and non-blocking channels to ensure no blocking IO operations are performed.

The HttpClient.sendAsync method takes the same parameters as the synchronous version, but returns a CompletableFuture<HttpResponse<T>> instead of just the raw HttpResponse<T>. Just as with any other CompletableFuture, you can chain together callbacks to be executed when the response is available. In this case, the body of the response is extracted and printed out. More details here on how to work with CompletableFuture.

CompletableFuture<HttpResponse<String>> future = client.sendAsync(request,

future.thenApply(HttpResponse::body) // retrieve body of response
      .thenAccept(System.out::println); // use body as String

Each HttpClient has a single implementation-specific thread that polls all of its connections. Received data is then passed off to the executor for processing. You can override the Executor on the HttpClient, by default it is a cached thread pool executor.


As the new API sits like any other in the default JDK, you can easily make use of it in your Kotlin projects as well! You can paste in the above examples into IntelliJ to perform the automagical Java-Kotlin conversion, or the below example covers the basics:

val client = HttpClient.newBuilder().build();

val request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()

val response = client.send(request, BodyHandlers.ofString());

Coroutines (Async)

Things get much more interesting when taking into account the new asynchronous capabilities and Kotlin coroutines. It would be great if we could launch a coroutine which sends the request and suspends until the response is available:

suspend fun getData(): String {
    // above code to construct client + request
    val response = client.sendAsync(request, BodyHandlers.ofString());
    return response.await().body() // suspend and return String not a Future

// in some other coroutine (suspend block)
val someData = getData()
process(someData) // just as if you wrote it synchronously

No need to deal with chaining together callbacks onto CompletableFuture, you get the same procedural code flow even though the implementation suspends and is completely non-blocking.

The magic comes from the CompletionStage.await() extension function provided by the coroutines JDK integration library:

return suspendCancellableCoroutine { cont: CancellableContinuation<T> ->
    val consumer = ContinuationConsumer(cont)
    whenComplete(consumer) // attach continuation to CompletionStage

Docs for the function.

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