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Ryan Harrison My blog, portfolio and technology related ramblings

Validate GitHub Webhook Signatures

I’ve mentioned using GitHub webhooks in a previous post where they got used to kick-off a new Jekyll build every time a new commit is pushed. This usually involves having some kind of web server (in my case Flask) running that listens for requests on some endpoint. The hope of course is that these requests only come from GitHub, but really there is nothing stopping any malicious actor from causing a denial of service attack by hitting that endpoint constantly and using up server resources.

To get around this, we need to perform some kind of validation to make sure that only requests from GitHub cause a rebuild.

Signature Header

The folks at GitHub have thought about this and so have included an extra header in all their webhook requests. This takes the form of X-Hub-Signature which, from the docs, contains:

The HMAC hex digest of the response body. This header will be sent if the webhook is configured with a secret. The HMAC hex digest is generated using the sha1 hash function and the secret as the HMAC key.

Therefore, as described in their example, a request coming from GitHub looks like:

POST /payload HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:4567
X-Github-Delivery: 72d3162e-cc78-11e3-81ab-4c9367dc0958
X-Hub-Signature: sha1=7d38cdd689735b008b3c702edd92eea23791c5f6
User-Agent: GitHub-Hookshot/044aadd
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 6615
X-GitHub-Event: issues
  "action": "opened",
  "issue": {

This mentions a secret which gets used to construct the signature. You can set this value in the main settings page for the webhook. Of course make sure that this is strong, not repeated anywhere else and is kept private.

GitHub Webhook

Signature Validation

As mentioned in the docs, the X-Hub-Signature header value will be the HMAC SHA-1 hex digest of the request payload using the secret we defined above as the key.

Sounds complicated, but it’s really quite simple to construct this value in most popular languages. In this case I’m using Python with Flask to access the payload and headers. The below snippet defines a Flask endpoint which the webhook will hit and accesses the signature and payload of the request:

import hmac
import hashlib

@app.route('/refresh', methods=['POST'])
def refresh():
    if not "X-Hub-Signature" in request.headers:
        abort(400) # bad request if no header present

    signature = request.headers['X-Hub-Signature']
    payload =

Next, you need to get hold of the secret which is used as the HMAC key. You could hardcode this, but that’s generally a bad idea. Instead, store the value in a permissioned file and read the contents in the script:

with open(os.path.expanduser('~/github_secret'), 'r') as secret_file:
    webhook_secret ="\n", "")

We now have the header value, payload and our secret. Now all that’s left to do is construct the same HMAC digest from the payload we get and compare it with the one from the request headers. As only you and GitHub know the secret, if two signatures match, the request will have originated from GitHub.

secret = webhook_secret.encode() # must be encoded to a byte array

# contruct hmac generator with our secret as key, and SHA-1 as the hashing function
hmac_gen =, payload, hashlib.sha1)

# create the hex digest and append prefix to match the GitHub request format
digest = "sha1=" + hmac_gen.hexdigest()

if not hmac.compare_digest(digest, signature):
    abort(400) # if the signatures don't match, bad request not from GitHub

# do real work after

Update 06/02/2020: Use hmac.compare_digest instead of ==. Thanks @webknaz

Automate Jekyll with GitHub Webhooks